2. Car and Cycle Parking Standards

The following parking standards are based upon principles as advocated within the Joint Lancashire Structure Plan. Levels of car parking are set out as the maximum that may be allowed, rather than minimum levels which must be provided, reflecting changes to both national and regional policy guidance.

For the purposes of applying these parking standards in Pendle, it should be noted that only those standards relevant to centres at level 3 and 4 will apply in Pendle (see section on Parking Hierarchy).

Table A: Parking Standards
Land UseLevel of CentreBaseline Standard (per m² gross floor area)
Gross floor area <500m² or Low Accessibility
Gross floor area >500m²
Medium accessibility
Reduce baseline by 5-15%
High accessibility
Reduce baseline by 15-35%
A1 (Food)
1&2
3&4
1:16
1:14
1:17-1:19
1:15-1:16
1:19-1:24
1:16-1:22
A1 (Non-Food)
1&2
3&4
1:22
1:20
1:23-1:26
1:21-1:24
1:26-1:33
1:24-1:31
A2
1&2
3&4
1:35
1:30
1:37-1:41
1:31-1:35
1:41-1:54
1:35-1:48
A3, A4, A5
Same standard for all levels of centre.
1:8
1:8.5-1:9.5
1:9.5-1:12
B1 (a) & (b)
1&2
3&4
1:35
1:30
1:37-1:41
1:31-1:35
1:41-1:54
1:35-1:48
B1 (c) Light industry/ stand alone
1&2
3&4
1:35
1:30
1:37-1:41
1:31-1:35
1:41-1:54
1:35-1:48
B1(c) Business parks
1&2
3&4
1:40
1:35
1:42-1:46
1:37-1:41
1:46-1:62
1:41-1:54
B2
All levels
1:45
1:47-1:53
1:53-1:69
B8
All levels
1:200
1:210-1:235
1:235-1:308
C1
All levels
1 bedroom including staff. Coaches – minimum 1 space for 30 beds +.
Reduce pro-rata
Reduce pro-rata
C2 - Nursing Homes
All levels
1 per 5 residents.
 Reduce pro-rata
C2 - Residential schools, colleges, residential training centres and halls of residence.
All levels
Training centres and
colleges - 1 per bed (short courses); 1 per 2 beds (longer courses - over 1 month duration). Halls of Residence – 1 per 2 beds, Residential schools - as day schools + 1 space per 20 beds.
Coaches – minimum 1 space for Training Centres of 1000m²+.
 Reduce pro-rata or as part of Travel Plan.
C2 - Hospitals.
All levels
1 per bed including those used for short stay operations.
Reduce as part of Travel Plan.
Reduce as part of Travel Plan.
C3 Dwelling Houses Single bed housing Sheltered Housing Family Housing
All levels
1 per dwelling.
1 per 3 dwellings.
2-3 bedrooms - 2 spaces.
4+ bedrooms - 3 spaces.
Average spaces per dwelling should equal 1.5 per dwelling for proposals of 30 + dwellings.
Reduce pro-rata.
Reduce to average of 1.5 or less unless exceptional circumstances demonstrated.
D1 - Medical/ health facilities
All levels
4 per consulting room
Reduce pro-rata.
Maximum of 3 per consulting room
D1 - Crèche/ day nurseries/ day centres
All levels
1.5 per 2 staff plus drop-off zone (in or outside curtilage) of 1 space per 10 children
Reduce pro-rata.
Reduce pro-rata
D1 – Primary and secondary schools
All levels
1 per classroom/activity area
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
D1 - Sixth form
All levels
1 per classroom/ activity area
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
D1 - Further and higher education
All levels
1 per 2 full-time staff (any residential element addressed under C2)
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
D1 - Training and conference centres
All levels
1:35
Coaches – minimum 1 space for Training Centres of 1000m²+
1:37-1:41
1:41-1:54
D1 - Art galleries, museums and libraries
All levels
1:30
Coaches – minimum 1 space for Galleries & Museums of 2500m²+
1:31-1:35
1:35-1:48
D1 - Public halls/ places of worship
All levels
1:10
Coaches – minimum 1 space for Public Halls of 2500m²+
1:10.5-1:12
1:12-1:15
D2 - Cinemas and concert facilities
1&2
3&4
1 per 8 seats
1 per 5 seats
Coaches – minimum 1 space for Concert/theatre facilities of 2500m²+
1:8-1:9
1:5-1:6
1:9-1:12
1:6-1:8
D2 Outdoor Playing pitches
All levels
12 per ha pitch area
Reduce pro-rata
Reduce pro-rata
Stadia
All levels
1 per 15 seats for all seatedstadiums; non seated stadiums on basis of Transport Assessment.
Coaches – minimum 1 space for each 1500 seats or standing spaces.
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
Reduce as part of Travel Plan
Other D2 including Leisure (buildings)
1&2
3&4
1:25
1:22
Coaches – minimum 1 space for facilities of 2500m²+
1:26-1:29
1:23-1:26
1:29-1:38
1:26-1:33
Miscellaneous Uses:
    
Cash and Carry
All levels
1:40
1:42-1:46
1:46-1:54
Wholesale car sales
All levels
1:50 internal showroom area
1:53-1:59
1:59-1:76
Vehicle repair and service stations
All levels
1:50
1:53-1:59
1:59-1:76
Taxi booking offices
All levels
1 per 1.5 cars operating from the business, to be located within 100 metres of the office.
No reductions
No reductions
Fuel Filling Stations
All levels
1 car space. Where retail element involved use retail standards counting each pump as a parking space.
Pro-rata
Pro-rata

Further Guidance:

Accessibility Reductions

For medium and high accessibility developments over 500m² gross floor area (gfa) the Council will determine the appropriate parking level based on:

Greater reductions may be made, such as in town centre locations.

For A1/D2 uses with medium/good accessibility in sequentially suitable locations accessibilityreductions may not be required. In such circumstances the applicant will be required to demonstrate through a Transport Assessment, to the satisfaction of the Highways Authority, that the proposal would cater for linked trips and would not conflict with the overall Parking strategy for the town.

All proposals of over 500m² gfa with low accessibility will be expected to demonstrate how accessibility by walking, cycling and public transport can be enhanced to at least medium accessibility level.

Mobility Parking 

Unless otherwise specified parking for the mobility impaired & parent/child should be made at aminimum level of 1 per 10 car spaces as part of overall provision. Additional mobility spaces thanindicated by overall provision may be required at locations such as Health Centres while less may be necessary for other uses. Provision at less than 1:10 should be agreed following consultation with disability groups on individual applications and subject to suitable alternatives being available.

Bicycles 

The minimum level is 1 per 10 car spaces. Long-stay covered, secure cycle parking will be required on all developments employing 30 or more full or part-time staff.

Motorcycles 

A minimum of 1 per 25 car spaces is required. Long-stay covered, secure parking will be required on all developments employing 30 or more full or part-time staff.

Operational Parking 

Operational parking necessary to business, e.g. goods vehicles and deliveries, should be provided in addition to these standards and should be demonstrated in the Transport Assessment.

Note: 

Detailed guidance on the calculation of parking provision and quality of facilities required can be found in Supplementary Planning Guidance “Access and Parking” (LCC)

Parking Level Reductions in Areas of Good Accessibility

Low AccessibilityMediumHigh
Table B: Parking Level Reductions





No change to baseline level
Reduce baseline by 5-15%
Reduce baseline by 15-35%

The definition of low, medium and high accessibility is intended purely for calculation of parking standards. It is not a definition of how accessible the site is in broader planning terms.

The reductions in Table B apply to all developments over 500m2 gfa. For proposals of under 500m2 gfa no changes to the baseline figures are required. The Council may apply accessibility reductions for proposals below the 500m2 threshold in areas of good accessibility, such as town centres.

Table B sets out a range of reductions in parking levels, which should be applied in medium and high accessibility locations. The Council will determine precise reductions based on the score obtained from Table C and the approach set out in SPG “Access and Parking”. Greater reductions to those indicated in Table B may be made, such as in town centre locations.

Where a site of over 500m2 gfa is calculated to have low accessibility, developers will be required to demonstrate how accessibility can be enhanced to at least medium level, in particular through the use of planning agreements and/or conditions. If this cannot be achieved, or is not considered to be appropriate in the individual case, this should be clearly justified. The Council will consider all proposals against broader locational policy, including the sequential approach to development advocated in PPS6.

Note: Accessibility reductions for retail (A1) uses are at the discretion of the Council.

Table C: Accessibility Questionnaire – Non-Residential Development.
Site Description:
Application Reference:
Access Type
Criteria
Criteria Scores
Score
Sub-Score
Walking
Distance to nearest bus stop from main entrance to building (via direct, safe route)
<200m
<300m
<500m
>500m
5
3
1
0
 
 Distance to nearest railway station from main entrance to building
<400m
<1km
>1km
3
2
0
 
Cycling
Proximity to defined cycle routes
<100m
<500m
<1km
3
2
1
 
Public Transport
Bus frequency of principal service from nearest bus stop during operational hours of the development
Urban/Suburban
15 minutes or less
30 minutes or less
>30 minutes
Villages and Rural
Hourly or less
2 Hourly or less
1 or more per day

5
3
1

5
2
1
 
 Number of bus services serving different localities stopping within 200 metres of main entrance4 or more localities served
3
2
1
5
3
2
1
 
 Train frequency from nearest station (Mon-Sat daytime)
30 minutes or less
30-59 minutes
Hourly or less
3
2
1
 
 Drive to nearest station
10 minutes or less
15 minutes or less
2
1
 
Other
Travel reduction opportunities
Facilities on site or within 100 metres that reduce the need to travel
*food shop/café
*newsagent
*crèche
*other
1
1
1
1
 
Total Aggregate Score
 

Accessibility Level: High: 24-30 Medium: 16-23 Low: 15 or less

Table D: Accessibility Questionnaire - Residential Development.
Site Description:
Application Reference:
Access Type
Criteria
Criteria Scores
Score
Sub-Score
Walking distance from centre of site, using safe, direct route
Distance to nearest bus stop
<200m
<300m
<500m
>500m
5
3
1
refuse
 
Distance to nearest railway station
<400m
<800m
>800-1000m
3
2
1
 
Distance to nearest Primary school
<200m
<400m
<600m
5
3
1
 
Distance to nearest food shop
<200m
<400m
<600m
5
3
1
 
Proximity to defined on or off road cycle route
<100m
<500m
<1km
3
2
1
 
Cycling distance from centre of site
Distance to nearest Secondary school
<400m
<600m
<1km
3
2
1
 
Distance to nearest town
<1km
<3km
<4km
3
2
1
 
Distance to nearest business park or employment concentration
<1km
<3km
<4km
3
2
1
 
Public Transport
Bus frequency from nearest bus stop (mon-sat daytime)
Urban/Suburban
15 minutes or less
30 minutes or less
>30 minutes
5
3
1
 
 Villages and Rural
Hourly or less
2 Hourly or less
1 or more per day
5
2
1
 
Train frequency from nearest station (Mon-Sat daytime)
30 minutes or less
30-59 minutes
Hourly or less
3
2
1
 
Accessibility to other services
Accessibility to other basic services (GP, Post office, library, bank, and pub)
At least 3 within 400m
At least 3 within 800 m
At least 3 within 1.5 km
5
3
1
 
Accessibility to play area or park
<200m
<400m
<600m
5
3
1
 
Total Aggregate Score
 

Accessibility Level: High: 40-53 Medium: 25-45 Low: 25 or less

Tables C and D will be used to ascertain the relationship between parking and accessibility. It is not intended to replace a full analysis of the suitability of the site in accessibility terms in respect of PPS6 and PPG13.

The Table takes a generic approach to all land uses and locations. In circumstances appropriate to the application, the table may be modified to provide greater weight to certain elements of thequestionnaire. For example, buses may be of greatest significance for retail developments, or rail for offices.

The developer or their consultant should undertake completion of the form as part of the submission of the Transport Assessment for the proposal.

Notes:

Parking Hierarchy

In Pendle the application of standards will apply as follows:

Nelson and Brierfield are classified as Level 3.
Colne and Barnoldswick are classified as Level 4.

Notes:

TRANSPORT ASSESSMENT AND TRAVEL PLAN THRESHOLDS

Table F: Transport Assessment (TA) and Travel Plan (TP) Thresholds
Use ClassComprehensive TA threshold
(m² gross floor area unless specified)
TP threshold
(m² gross floor area unless specified)
A1 Food
A1 Non food
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
A2
2,500
2,500
A3, A4, A5
1,000
*
B1(a), (b), (c)
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
B2
5,000
5,000
B8
10,000
*
C1
1,000
*
C2 Hospital
C2 Residential College/School
2,500
250
1,000
500
C3
100 dwellings
*
D1 Primary Schools
D1 Secondary Schools
D1 Further Education
D1 Medical
D1 Conference Facilities
D1 Other
1,000
2,500
2,500
2,500
1,000
2,500
*67
*68
500
*
1,000
2,500
D2 Cinemas
D2 Stadia
D2 Other
1,000
1,500 seats
1,000
1,000
1,500 seats
1,000

Comprehensive Transport Assessments should be documents that analyse all aspects of current and proposed accessibility to the site. They should include modal targets and identify measures by which these are to be achieved. Details of the content should be agreed with the Planning/Highways Authorities or the Highways Agency for development affecting trunk roads.

Simple Transport Assessments69 will be required for all developments of 500m² gross floor area or more. This includes extensions to existing buildings where the cumulative floorspace will exceed 500m² and changes of use.

Comprehensive Transport Assessments rather than simple forms should be provided where the proposal for cumulative floorspace or change of use exceeds the thresholds in Table F.

Note:
* This indicates that need for a Travel Plan should be agreed with the Highways Authority on a case-by-case basis.
67 Will be required for all developments involving an increase in numbers on school roll.
68 Will be required for all developments involving an increase in numbers on school roll.
69 Simple Transport Assessments are tick-box based forms of 2-3 pages in length with limited supporting documentation to be agreed with the Planning Department and Highways Authorities.

Travel Plans should be submitted at or above the specified thresholds. They should demonstrate how the measures proposed will achieve modal shift, and include mechanisms for monitoring, review and enforcement. Levels for Hospitals and Educational uses are set at a low level because of the particular transport implications of these land uses.

Where a comprehensive Travel Assessment or Travel Plan has previously been prepared for a site any subsequent application will not require a complete new submission. The scope of any supplementary work required should be agreed with the Planning Department and Highways Authorities, or the Highways Agency for development affecting trunk roads.

These thresholds may be modified subsequent to release of ODPM guidance on Transport Assessments.

Guidance for the Application of Standards

General Notes Relating to A1, A2, B1 and D2 Uses

Retail and business parking in or adjacent to town centres will be subject to parking management agreements made through Section 106 obligations.

Where additional short stay retail/leisure parking for town centre "linked trips" is sought over and above the standards the developer will be expected to demonstrate that:

All retail and leisure developments of over 1,000m2 gfa should incorporate taxi drop-off and pick up points as close to the main entrance as feasible.

Explanatory Note on Non-Food Retail 

Some non-food developments such as garden centres, DIY warehouses and building materialcompanies incorporate substantial exterior sales areas, e.g. for plants, garden furniture. Where the same parking standard is used as for interior floorspace this can substantially increase the amount of parking applicable to the development. Exterior floorspace should therefore be calculated as a maximum of 50% of the standard relevant to that within buildings. Thus the baseline standard for external areas would be a maximum of 1:40 per m2 gfa in Level 3 and 4 centres and 1:44m² per m² gfa in Level 1 and 2 centres. No accessibility reductions will be applied to external areas.

Explanatory Note on Hospitals 

The Standard for Hospitals is based on the number of beds within long stay wards and those utilised for short stay operations e.g. day care and out-patients.

Where Hospitals propose substantial teaching elements or residential accommodation on site the appropriate standards for those uses should be utilised when considering new applications. Care should, however, be taken to ensure that double counting is avoided.

At least one ‘drop-off/pick-up space’ should be provided close to the main entrances of the buildings used for short stay operations and Accident and Emergency. Provision should also be made for taxi waiting areas at each main entrance.

Operational parking should make particular provision for the manoeuvring and parking of ambulances and ensure that conflicts with other users are minimised.

Travel Plans are particularly relevant to Hospitals due to the large amount of traffic generated. Hospitals should develop Parking Strategies for their site and immediate proximity covering the location of parking; prevention of ‘displaced’ parking; staff or visitor usage; definition of long and short stay and management issues, including charging. 

Explanatory Note on Schools 

Parking provision in schools should be calculated on the basis of classrooms and other internallearning areas such as workshops, ICT rooms and halls. It does not apply to storage areas. External activity space should not be considered in the calculation of parking space. The only exception to this would be when community use of this space occurs at the same time as school activity, for example playing fields or tennis courts.

Explanatory Note on Dwelling Houses 

Residential parking – The figures identified for residential parking are maximum figures. Theprinciples included within “Places, Streets and Movement: a companion guide to Design Bulletin 32” should form the basis for examining options for “off-plot” parking. Table D should be utilised to identify opportunities to increase accessibility and/or reduce parking levels on individual housing developments.

The main focus of residential parking standards is to improve urban design and densities while at the same time avoiding on street parking problems. The calculation of average parking densities i.e. the 1.5 spaces per house figure should be based on new dwellings across the whole Borough. However, with larger housing developments i.e. over 30 dwellings, the application of this figure to the whole development would be appropriate. Officer discretion should be used when calculating parking provision for larger residential properties with large curtilages, particularly in the countryside. The monitoring of residential parking levels will be undertaken for new residential developments, where possible.

Individual garages, of minimum dimensions of 6 x 3m, count as one parking space. Double garages count as two parking spaces. Parking on driveways or under ‘car ports’ should be calculated on the basis of the number of vehicles that can easily be accommodated allowing for opening of any gates.

At least one secure cycle space should be provided for single bedroom residential properties and two where more than two bedrooms are to be provided. These may be provided in cycle sheds strategically located within the development. A standard size garage (6 x 3m) is considered capable of accommodating two cycles. Where no garage is provided alternative covered lockable provision should be made on or within 100 metres of the property. In flats/apartments secure provision should be provided within the development for cycles (and mobility buggies as appropriate) at the ratio of one per dwelling.

Explanatory Note on mixed-use Development 

Where mixed-use development is proposed (e.g. food and non-food retail), the total amount of parking should reflect the ratio of uses on the site, where uses have the same peaks of demand. Where peak demands occur at different times the dominant land use will form the basis for calculation. Opportunities for joint parking should be maximised wherever possible.

Bus and Rail Stations/Interchanges 

Provision of short/long stay parking should be based on:

Limited Waiting: “drop-off/pick-up” points should be provided for a minimum of three vehicles at Category A and B Interchanges. This is defined as being for a maximum of 30 minutes.

Taxi parking/waiting: A minimum of one space shall be provided at LTP Category C and Rural
Interchanges, 2 at Category B Interchanges and 3 at Category A Interchanges.

Motorcycles: A minimum of two motorcycle anchor spaces/bars shall be provided at Category C and rural Interchanges with Category A and B Interchanges decided on merit.

Bicycles: A minimum of 2 cycle lockers should be provided at Interchange categories C, D (rail only) and R. Category B and A Interchanges will be decided on merit. All cycle and motorcycle parking shall be at well-lit locations close to the main pedestrian entrance to the station. 

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